About the Self-Concept Scales Available
on this Site
Caveat: These instruments are mainly for use in research, though
they may also have some self-evaluative applications. They are available
without fee, but if used in published research they should be properly
referenced. If you do use them, I would be interested in hearing about your
The three self-concept scales
which are available include the ASSEI (Adult
Sources of Self-Esteem), the Fleming-Courtney
Self-Esteem Scales, and the PASCI
(Personal and Academic Self-Concept Inventory).
The latter two were both designed
to assess various components of the hierarchical, multifaceted self-concept
scheme of Shavelson, Stanton, and Hubner (1976). Because these have academic components
they have mostly been used with students from high school through college age.
The ASSEI was designed for use with adults (as
well as with students).
The Fleming-Courtney Scales
(Fleming & Courtney, 1980) were an extension and modification of the
pre-existing Janis and Field (1959) Self-Esteem Scale, itself previously
revised by Fleming and Watts (1980). We added some general academic items, and
items to measure physical appearance and abilities, and modified or eliminated
certain other items and modified the format.
PASCI (Personal and Academic
Self-Concept Inventory) was an extension of the Fleming-Courtney Scales
(Fleming & Whalen, 1984). More academic scales were added (verbal
abilities), as well as a social anxiety scale, and some items were
from the existing scales. In a later (unpublished) revision I added a
“perceived familial acceptance.” This version was used by Gifford
(2005) in his
dissertation, and it is found in the most recent version of this
instrument. Gifford found a moderate negative correlation (-0.35, p < .01) between the latter
and anti-social personality
Choosing Among the
The ASSEI can be used with any
teen or adult population (as long as English is reasonably understood). It
contains fewer items than the other two scales and, unlike them, allows test
takers to self-evaluate by examining discrepancies between areas of life (e.g.,
personal relations, physical appearance) between desired self (importance
ratings) and actual self (satisfaction ratings). Click on this link for more details about its creation, rationale,
and use in prior research, and Click
here and here to download the instrument itself (importance and satisfaction ratings, respectively).
The Fleming-Courtney Scales have
found wider acceptance than the PASCI, perhaps because this instrument is
shorter and gives an overall measure of self-esteem as well as subscale scores
for different areas. Click on this link
for downloading. Click here for the scoring key.
A commercial German language version of the Fleming-Courtney scales (Multidimensionale Selbstwertskala), developed by Schutz and Sellin (2006) is now available. Norms and other data are included.
I have not done as much
development work with the PASCI although it has been used by several doctoral
dissertation students. I recommend this instrument only for those who wish to
assess many different aspects of the Shavelson model in their research, whereas
the other two instruments may also be useful for self-evaluation or counseling purposes.
Click on this link for downloading.
Click here for the scoring key, and here for original norms.
The references below should help
the potential user decide on which, if any, of these scales would be most
useful for their purposes.
Elovson, A. C., & Fleming, J. S. (1987). The Adult Sources of Self-Esteen Inventory (ASSEI). Unpublished assessment instrument, California State University, Northridge.
Fleming, J. S., & Elovson, A. C. (1989/2008). The
Adult Sources of Self-Esteem Scale (ASSEI): Development, Rationale and History.
Unpublished manuscript, available from first author [see link above].
J. S., & Courtney, B. E. (1984). The dimensionality of self-esteem: II.
Hierarchical facet model for revised measurement scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 404-421.
J. S., & Watts, W. A. (1981). The
dimensionality of self-esteem: Some results for a college sample. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 39, 921-929.
Fleming, J. S., & Whalen, D. J. (1990). The
development and validation of the Personal and Academic Self-Concept Inventory
(PASCI) in high school and college samples. Educational
and Psychological Measurement, 50, 957-967.
G. (2005). The factor structure of
antisocial personality disorder. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Washington State University.
I. L., & Field, P. B. (1959). Sex
differences and factors related to persuasibility. In C.I. Hovland & I. L. Janis (Eds.), Personality
and persuasibility (pp. 55-68). New Haven, CT: Yale
Shaveleson, R. J., Hubner, J. J., and Stanton, G. C. (1976).
Self-concept: Validation of construct interpretations. Review of Educational Research, 46, 407-441.
Schutz, A., & Sellin, I. (2006). MSWS: Mulltidimensionale Selbstwertskala. [Test manual]. Gottingen: Hogrefe.